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Brucellosis Symptoms And Diagnosis

Brucella is a dangerous bacteria that affects animals and then can be transferred to humans to cause one of the most rare diseases called “Brucellosis” or “Malta Fever”. The ratio of bacterial transfer is 0.001 in people working in slaughterhouses or farms where they be in direct contact with sick animals. 

how brucella is transferred

Brucella can be easily transferred to humans who work with animals or any person in direct contact with a sick animal. It affects cats, dogs, pigs, rats, cattle such as cows and buffalo, goats and similar species. 

brucella cell diagram

The symptoms of brucella are very tricky as indicating several diseases at once according to the case level. They don’t usually appear on the patient as taking a long incubation period up to 8 months at maximum. 

Maltal Fever is, unlike other types of diseases, very harmful either for humans or animals. It takes a long time for the bacteria to develop into a chronic disease that affects the bones, the uterus, the heart and the digestive system. The bacteria live in the bones, the stomach, the tummy, the lymph nodes and the reproductive system or genitals. It causes swollen genitals and prostate problems in males, and uterus damage that develops into frequent miscarriage in females. 

brucella distribution table


The incubation period of brucella may take 2 weeks, 3 months or 8 months. After that, the bacterial infection develops into several flu-like symptoms with fever, much fatigue and loss of appetite. In the beginning the symptoms can show salmonellosis instead, and after taking the medicine the body will improve for a few weeks then the symptoms will return again. After turning to acute brucellosis, the disease turns into severe fever with bone and joint problems, abdominal pain, vomiting and excessive sweating at night.
The fever begins with fluctuating temperature that increases at night with the much sweating. The spikes usually begin at the afternoon and increases at night.

brucella phases and life cycle


The treatment depends on antibiotics that are given in certain amounts according to the body weight and case level to stop the bacteria from spreading and developing its cells. The treatment may take a whole month during which the patient should rest in bed, eat well and take vitamins to enhance the immunity.


1- Avoiding diseases is very hard to achieve, but at least you should wash your hands regularly and immediately after touching the uncooked meat.

2- Keep your home clean if you have pets, and the house surrounding if you live in a farmhouse.

3- Bathe your animals regularly and use sanitizer for your hands, inside and around your barn; and check the food you use for your animals for it might contain the bacteria. 

4- Better consuming the pasteurized milk instead of the raw milk, and never drink the raw milk without boiling.
Buy a good quality cheese and make sure of the cleanness of the products you consume. 

5- For your kids, apply the same steps above and use extra sanitizing for the kids catch the infections faster. 

6- If you have a barn, cattle or goats or even pigs, make sure to wear gloves when working with your animals; and during the labor try to call the veterinarian and use ultimate sanitizing for the place.
If you work in slaughterhouses, farms or in direct contact with sick animals, try to use the special anti-bacterial soap as much as you can during work and after you take off your gloves. And make sure that your clothes are all protected during work and sanitized after leaving.